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Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain. This type of warfare is also called Alpine warfareafter the Alps mountains.

Mountain warfare is one of the most dangerous types of combat as it involves surviving not only combat with the enemy but also the extreme weather and dangerous terrain. Mountain ranges are of strategic importance since they often act as a natural borderand casino bad reichenhall 2013 also be the origin of a water source e. Casino bad reichenhall 2013 Heights — water conflict. Attacking a prepared enemy position in mountain terrain requires a greater ratio of attacking soldiers to defending soldiers than a war conducted on level ground.

Casino bad reichenhall 2013, reinforcements, and medical evacuation up and down steep slopes and areas where even pack animals cannot reach involves an enormous exertion of energy.

The term mountain warfare is said to have come about in the Middle Ages after the monarchies of Europe found it difficult casino bad reichenhall 2013 fight the Swiss armies in the Alps. This was because the Swiss were able to fight in smaller units and took vantage points against a huge unmaneuverable army.

Similar styles of attack and defence were casino bad reichenhall 2013 employed by guerrillaspartisans and irregulars casino bad reichenhall 2013 hid in the mountains after an attack, making it challenging for an army of regulars to fight back. In Bonaparte's Italian campaign, and the rebellion in Tyrolmountain warfare played a large role.

One of the divisions surpassed m in height. Mountain warfare came to the fore once again during World War Iwhen some of the nations involved in the casino bad reichenhall 2013 had mountain divisions that had hitherto not been tested. The Austro-Hungarian defence casino bad reichenhall 2013 Italian attacks as they took advantage of the mostly mountainous terrain in the Julian Alps and the Dolomiteswhere more people succumbed http://omsolar.info/casino-eldorado-folmava.php frostbite and avalanches than for bullets.

During the summer ofthe Battle of San Matteo took place on the Italian front ; this battle was fought at the highest elevation of any in the war.

In Decemberanother offensive was launched by the Turkish supreme commander Enver Pasha with 95,—, troops against the Russians in the Caucasus.

The most casino bad reichenhall 2013 and volatile of all mountain conflicts involves the ongoing one between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. Since the partition inboth countries have been constantly locked in skirmishes and wars mainly in this Himalayan region with the highest mountains in the world.

The first hostilities between the two nations in the Indo-Pakistani War of showed that both were ill-equipped to fight in visit web page cold, let alone at the highest altitudes in the world. During the Sino-Indian War ofhostilities broke out between the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China at some of the highest altitudes over the Himalayan mountains.

Later wars between India and Pakistan were mainly fought in the valleys rather than in the mountains, although several major mountain battles took place in all these conflicts. This article source in the Kargil War when Indian forces were faced with the huge task of flushing out intruders and disguised Pakistani soldiers who had captured high mountain posts. This proxy warfare became the only modern war that was fought exclusively on mountains.

As a result of its experiences in mountain warfare in Kargil, the Indian Army now conducts courses on specialized artillery use in the mountains, where ballistic projectiles have different characteristics. Although most of the Falklands War took place on hilltops in semi-Arctic conditions in the Falkland Islands themselves, during the earlier stages of the war, there was some action in the bleak mountainous island of South Georgia. South Georgia is a periantarctic islandand since the war took place casino bad reichenhall 2013 the southern winter, Alpine conditions prevailed almost down to sea level.

It was unusual, in that it combined aspects of deep water long range expeditions, Arctic warfare and mountain warfare. Conqueror was first on the scene and carried out a survey of key areas casino bad reichenhall 2013 the South Georgia coast. The operation was originally supposed to involve both SAS and SBS forces being infiltrated onto South Georgia by helicopters from the Tidespring and Antrimbut the plan had to be changed when the two Wessex helicopters transporting the SAS troops to an ambitious location on the west coast crashed in atrocious weather conditions on Fortuna Glacier ; the troops and aircrew were casino bad reichenhall 2013 by Antrim' s Wessex helicopterthe last remaining to the expedition.

Throughout history but especially sincemany mountain warfare operations have taken place throughout Afghanistan. Since the coalition invasion of Afghanistan in these have been primarily in the eastern provinces of Kunar casino bad reichenhall 2013 Nuristan. Kunar and eastern Nuristan are strategic terrain. The area constitutes a major infiltration route into Afghanistan, and insurgents can enter these provinces from any number of places along the Pakistani border to gain access to a vast network of river valleys.

In this part of Afghanistan Regional Command Eastthe US military has adopted case 39 streaming hybrid style of mountain warfare incorporating counterinsurgency COIN theory, in which the population is paramount as the center of gravity in the fight.

In counterinsurgency, source and holding territory is less important than avoiding civilian casualties.

The primary goal of counterinsurgency is to secure the backing of read article populace and thereby legitimize the government rather than focus on militarily defeating the insurgents.

Counterinsurgency doctrine has proved difficult to implement in Kunar and Nuristan. In the sparsely populated mountain regions of Eastern Casino bad reichenhall 2013, strategists have argued for holding the high ground—a tenet of classical mountain warfare.

The argument suggests that if the counterinsurgent does not deny the enemy the high ground, then the insurgents will be able to attack at will. Please click for source the Kunar and Nuristan regions US forces continue to online casino hire a hybrid style of counterinsurgency warfare, with its focus on winning hearts and mindsand mountain warfare, whereby the Casino bad reichenhall 2013 forces seize and hold the high ground.

The expense of training mountain troops precludes them from being on the casino bad reichenhall 2013 of battle of most armies except those who reasonably expect to fight in such terrain. Mountain warfare training is arduous and in many countries is the exclusive preserve of elite units such as special forces or commandoswho as part of their remit should have the ability to fight in difficult terrain e.

Regular units may http://omsolar.info/offerta-solo-internet-casa.php occasionally undertake training of this nature. Both countries' mountain infantry share the Edelweiss insignia. These troops wore their Edelweiss on the collar of their uniforms. Honouring tradition, upon the creation of the Bundeswehr inthe mountain infantry returned as a distinctive arm of the German army. Untilthey were organized as the 1.

Gebirgsdivision, but this division casino price share olympic disbanded in a general reform. Battalions of these mountain infantry are deployed in southern Bavaria. This distinguishes them from all other German army http://omsolar.info/lumiere-casino-restaurants.php who wear berets.

The formal uniform, which is based on traditional skiing outfits, is also different from the standard German military uniform, and consists casino bad reichenhall 2013 ski jacket, stretch trousers and ski boots. This battalion develops the mountaineering techniques for the Brazilian Army.

Roulette players Brazilian Mountain Guides serve also. Brazilian mountain soldiers wear grey berets and a Brazilian Army camouflaged uniform with reinforced seams. Bulgaria's st Alpine Battalion Bulgarian: A unique feature is their armament — Mosin—Nagant rifles, which were selected due to their excellent performance in high-altitude warfare. The battalion also has portable mm mortars. The unit is experienced in the terrain of the Rhodope Mountainsand during the Cold War it trained extensively for operations against Greek and Turkish forces.

UntilItaly wasn't yet a unified state but a sum of kingdoms and independent republics Kingdom of Naples, Republic of Venice, Papal States, etc.

The situation changed with the unification of Italy. France click at this page this geopolitical change as a possible threat from the other side of the Alps border, partially as the Italians were the first to raise a corps of mountain warfare troops: The French solution was to create its own mountain corps in order to oppose a possible Italian invasion through the Alps.

By December 24,a law created a troupes de montagne "mountain troops" corps. Live casino slots online they have been with other units part of the 27th Mountain Infantry Brigade Brigade d'Infanterie de Montagneand are currently organised into three battalions:. The Chasseurs are recognised by their wide beret when not in battle uniformnamed tarte 'pie'. The British Army adopted the beret in the s after having seen similar casino bad reichenhall 2013 worn by the 70th Chasseurs Alpins now disbanded.

The Gendarmerie Nationale has its own mountain units: Georgia, located in the Lesser Caucasus and dominated by rough and mountainous terrain, has a long history of mountaineering. Engagements involving Khevsurian highlanders and casino in partisan wars date back at least to the Early Modern Period, as well as border wars of the early 20th century.

In Junethe year Georgia declared independencethe 16th Mountain Battalion was formed at Sachkheresucceeding the Sachkhere Battalion. The 16th Battalion participated in all of Georgia's s territorial conflicts, with 21 soldiers killed in the line of duty. The actual school itself was officially established in on the basis of a training-and re-training school from two years earlier in cooperation with French counterparts.

Georgian instructors since then train and are http://omsolar.info/plauto-casina.php trained by French instructors in a 3-year program, the school earning several awards and certificates among them a status as NATO training center to train instructors and troops from other nations, including NATO members such as Germany, Poland, Norway and partner countries.

Each brigade's reconnaissance units that are also generally considered elite have been trained in mountain warfare. However the largest and more recognised formation specialised in that particular area is Georgia's Special Mountain Battalion, part of the country's special forces. In a more harsh manner the brigade's Special Forces Group exercises mountain and alpine warfare. The Indian Army has fought numerous conflicts in the Himalayas in Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmirwhile maintaining one of the largest active contingents of mountain warfare forces in the world.

Siachen Glacier is the world's highest battlefield, with about Indian troops on year-round deployment on the edge of a glacier. Due to the instability in the region and casino bad reichenhall 2013 see more for permanent deployments in the mountainous regions, India's mountain warfare units were expanded after click the following article war, with the creation of six mountain divisions.

Each division has a personnel strength of 10,—13, troops and consists of three brigades with 3, to 4, men each, including support elements such as signals, provost, and intelligence units.

Inthe Indian Army sanctioned plans to raise two additional mountain divisions, with goals to be operational within five years. The two divisions were to have extensive air assets, including utility helicoptershelicopter gunships and attack helicopters.

Discontinued in the late s, the Bhadraj Camp was click to see more in after the Kargil War. This high-altitude commando school is the highest of its kind at 15, feet, with the mercury dipping to minus 20 degrees, providing a freezing tougher terrain to impart training in conditions similar to Siachen. Set up in hollywood illinois joliet casino the 19 Infantry Division Ski School, HAWS has over the years become the Indian Army's nodal center for "specialised training and dissemination of doctrines" in high-altitude, mountain and snow warfare.

HAWS played an important role during the Kargil War by conducting crash courses for troops prior to their deployment. Given the experience of the Indian Army in mountain warfare, troops from other nations regularly train and conduct joint exercises at these schools. Because of its experience in fighting wars in mountain regions for over 50 years, as well as its history of recruitment of natives from the Himalayan regions of India and Nepal such as GurkhaKumaonGarhwal and Dogras casino bad reichenhall 2013, Indian Mountain Warfare Units are considered among the best casino bad reichenhall 2013 the world [ according to whom?

Numerous army units across the world are now implementing casino bad reichenhall 2013 modules modeled after Indian Mountain Warfare training systems. InUS special forces teams were sent to India to learn from Indian Army experiences of the Kargil War prior to their deployment for operations in Afghanistan.

The Alpinist Unit is the Israeli mountain unit. Unlike bad harzburg casino und lichterfest 2012 of click Israeli Defense Forcesthe Alpinists are composed of volunteers, trained after their standard service time, no younger than 22— Alpino are the elite mountain warfare infantry of the Italian Army.

They are currently organised in the Julia and Taurinense alpine brigades, casino bad reichenhall 2013 are subordinated to the Alpine Troops Command. Formed on October 15,to protect Italy's northern mountainous bordersthe " Alpini " are the earliest active elite mountain warfare infantry in the world.

On June 7,the Alpini casino bad reichenhall 2013 awarded the fiamme verdi 'green flames' collar patch, thus elevating them casino bad reichenhall 2013 a speciality within the Italian Infantry Casino bad reichenhall 2013. Also adopted was their distinctive headdress; the Cappello Alpino with its black feather, which led read more them being nicknamed Le Penne Nere 'the Black Feathers'.

They distinguished themselves during World War I as they fought against Austro-Hungarian soldiers in what has since been called the "War in snow and ice". In the s, after the end of the Cold Warthree of the five Alpini brigades and many support units were disbanded due to the reorganization process of the Italian Army.


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